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850老版 「初中英语必考考点」主谓一致都搞懂了,还有什么考试能难住你

2020-01-09 14:37:57   【浏览】4106


850老版 「初中英语必考考点」主谓一致都搞懂了,还有什么考试能难住你

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主谓一致是指主语和谓语必须保持人称和数的变化一致,即句中谓语的变化形式由句子主语的人称和数的形式决定。主谓一致通常遵循三个原则:语法一致、意义一致和就近一致原则。

语法一致是指主语的单复数决定谓语动词的单复数。

考点一:一般情况下,主语为单数可数名词或代词、不可数名词时,谓语动词用单数形式;主语为复数可数名词或代词时,谓语动词用复数形式。

考点二:动词不定式或动词-ing形式作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

考点三:复合不定代词anyone, anybody, anything, someone, somebody, something, everyone, everybody, everything, no one, nobody, nothing作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

注意:

1. “neither of / none of + 复数可数名词 / 代词”作主语时,谓语动词用单、复数形式皆可。

2. either指“两者之中任何一个”,作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。“either of +复数可数名词 / 代词”作主语时,谓语动词用单、复数形式皆可。

3. each作同位语时,谓语动词的单、复数形式取决于主语的数;“each of+复数可数名词 / 代词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

考点四:当用both ... and ... 连接并列主语时,谓语动词常用复数形式。当and连接的两个名词表示两个不同的概念时,谓语动词用复数形式;当表示同一人、同一物或同一个概念,或表示不可分的整体时,谓语动词仍用单数形式。

考点五:当主语后面跟有with, except, including, along with, together with, as well as, in addition to等词语引导的短语时,谓语动词的单、复数形式由主语的单、复数形式决定。

【考例链接】

Ⅰ. 单项选择

( )1. —______ there anything new in today's qianzhong morning daily?

—no. but there ______ some inspiring stories worth reading.

a. is; is b. are; are c. is; are d. are; is

( )2. we all know that one of the world's most popular sports ______ football.

a. am b. is c. are

( )3. listen! the little girl ______ singing in the room.

a. 不填 b. are c. is

( )4. mary ______ is my friend, as well as her sisters, ______ chinese in china.

a. that; are studying b. which; have studied c. who; study d. who; studies

( )5. everybody except mike and linda ______ there when the meeting began.

a. are b. was c. were

( )6. playing computer games too much ______ bad for students' health.

a. am b. is c. are

Ⅱ. 用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空

1. my mother with her friends often _______(go) shopping on weekends.

2. each of these exercises _______(take) one or two minutes to do every day.

3. she likes nobody and nobody _______(like) her.

4. both he and his wife _______(enjoy) tennis.

5. —what would you like, orange juice or apple juice?

—either _______(be) ok. i don't mind.

考点六:

一些由两部分构成的表示物体的名词作主语时,谓语动词通常用复数形式,如shoe, glove, trouser, scissor, chopstick等。但如果这些名词前有量词如pair等修饰时,谓语动词的数与量词保持一致。

考点七:

1. “a (large / small) number of + 复数可数名词 / 代词”作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式;“the number of + 复数可数名词 / 代词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

2. “分数 / 百分数+ of + 名词”和“the rest / most of +名词”作主语时,谓语动词的数由名词决定。

【考例链接】

Ⅰ. 单项选择

( )1. the number of people in the city ______ about seven million now.

a. are b. has c. is

( )2. a number of visitors ______ visiting the west lake and the number of the visitors ______ increasing.

a. are; is b. is; are c. are; are

Ⅱ. 用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空

1. tom's gloves ______(be) getting old. i think a pair of gloves ______(be) a nice present for him.

2. the two pairs of shoes _______(be) on sale. i will take them.

3. toby had 100 yuan. he spent 50 yuan on food. the rest _______(be) spent on books.

4. two thirds of the land in my garden _______(be) no good for growing potatoes.

5. the number of women in my office _______(be) 20 and only 5% of them _______(return) to work after having a baby.

意义一致是指谓语动词和主语的一致不是取决于主语的语法形式,而是由其意义所决定。

考点一:当数词作主语或当表示距离、金额、时间等名词(短语)作主语时,通常作为整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式。

考点二:有些集体名词常指复数的人或物,谓语用复数形式,如police;有些集体名词作主语时,如果作为一个整体看待,谓语动词用单数形式;如果指集体中的成员,谓语动词用复数形式,如family, class, team, group, crowd等;当population意为“人口数量”时,谓语动词用单数形式;意为“全体居民”时,谓语动词用单、复数形式皆可。

考点三:以-s结尾的单数名词如news, physics, maths, politics等作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

考点四:

1. “the + 形容词”表示一类人作主语时,谓语动词常用复数形式。这类词有the brave, the poor, the rich, the blind, the young, the old, the sick, the dead等。

2. “the + 姓氏的复数形式”表示某一家人或夫妇两人,其作主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。

【考例链接】

用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空

1. look! the smiths _______(eat) dinner in the kitchen.

2. 500 yuan _______(be) enough for me to buy a good bike.

3. two months _______(be) a long time. we can visit our grandparents during those days.

4. the good news _______(be) that tomorrow will be sunny.

5. physics _______(have) made much progress in this century.

6. police _______(be) asking for the public's help with information about a lost boy now.

7. the population of this city _______(be) 350, 000.

8. five kilometers _______(be) not long. i run even eight kilometers every morning.

9. it seems that the rich _______(be) getting richer and the poor _______(be) getting poorer.

10. my class _______(be) rather noisy this morning.

就近一致是指谓语动词的数要与其最近的主语在人称和数上保持一致。

考点一:以or, not only ... but also ..., either ... or ..., neither ... nor ... 等连接的名词(或代词)作主语时,谓语动词要和离它最近的主语在人称和数上保持一致。

考点二:在there be 句型中,如果有两个或两个以上的主语时,主语与谓语的一致通常遵循就近一致原则。

【考例链接】

Ⅰ. 单项选择

( )1. neither jim nor tom ______ australia before, but they know the country very well.

a. has gone to b. has been to c. have gone to d. have been to

( )2. not only my parents but also my sister ______ crazy about the tv play in the name of people.

a. is b. are c. have been

( )3. —do you enjoy the songs sung by jay chou?

—of course. not only i but also my parents ______ his fans.

a. am b. are c. was d. were

Ⅱ. 用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空

1. there _______(be) two glasses of milk and an egg on the table.

2. there _______(be) tea or coffee — you can have either.

责编 | 杨宁

审稿 | 李栋

校稿 | 吕放

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